• October 21, 2019 in Commercial Law

    Law Loophole Closed for Climate Protesters

    Climate change protesters facing charges over activities such as gluing themselves to pedestrian crossings could come unstuck if they try to fight the charges using a defence of ‘extraordinary emergency’, says leading legal firm Creevey Russell Lawyers.

    Creevey Russell Principal Dan Creevey said Section 25 of the Criminal Code Act 1899 (Qld) contains a defence of extraordinary emergency, which relates to acts done upon compulsion or provocation or in self-defence, where a person is not criminally responsible for an act or omission done or made under circumstances of sudden or extraordinary emergency.

    Mr Creevey said with protest groups such as Extinction Rebellion seeking governments to declare a “climate emergency”, they have reportedly been considering the use of Section 25 when defending charges.

    “While each individual matter is dependent on its own unique circumstances and is ultimately a matter for the court, we would be surprised if a section 25 defence was successfully relied upon by those charged as a result of their involvement in climate change protest activity,” he said.

    “It would ultimately be a matter for a court to determine in the event the defence were to be raised, but we would anticipate that the actions of protesters would not be found to be consistent with how an ‘ordinary person’ exercising ‘ordinary powers of self-control’ may behave. The rationale for this is that there is no sudden situation that exists, and there are alternative avenues available.”

    Creevey Russell Senior Associate Trent Jones said the defence of extraordinary emergency is usually raised in circumstances where an individual is confronted by a sudden situation, and they do not have the time or ability to process rationale thinking.

    Mr Jones said in one case the Court of Appeal set aside a plea of guilty entered by an applicant who had been involved in a road rage incident and directed that a plea of not guilty be entered.

    “The applicant was harassed and followed by occupants of the second vehicle for a period of approximately 11 kilometres, who were at times threatening and aggressive towards the applicant,” he said. “In the applicant’s attempt to drive away from the second vehicle, he ran a red light at an intersection at high speed, colliding with a third motorist who sustained significant injury. The applicant was subsequently charged with, and entered a plea of guilty to, one count of dangerous operation of a motor vehicle causing grievous bodily harm.

    “But the Court of Appeal determined that the case raised the existence of a defence of extraordinary emergency and the sentencing judge ought to have refused the plea of guilty entered by the applicant and directed that a plea of not guilty be entered. This case is just one example of where the defence of extraordinary emergency was raised on the factual basis and evidence.”

    Trent Jones
    Senior Associate
    Ph:   07 3009 6555


  • October 21, 2019 in Commercial Law

    Landlord Liability for Drug Contamination

    The insertion of a special condition into a contract of sale for residential property can provide important safeguards for potential buyers from both a property law and criminal law view point. Creevey Russell Lawyers encourages individuals looking to purchase residential property to be aware of their rights and the ability to add special conditions to a standard contract of sale to protect their interests.

    Our firm is increasingly seeing a special condition being inserted into residential contracts of sale, worded to the effect:

    “That the contract is subject to and conditional upon the buyer obtaining a satisfactory drug test report on the property within X days from the date of the contract. In the event the report is not satisfactory to the buyer, then the buyer may terminate the contract.”

    Solicitor, Rachel Greenslade, of Creevey Russell Lawyers says that inserting a special condition into a contract, such as the one outlined above, provides protections for individuals investing in the property market, in a similar way to how a building and pest condition operates.

    A building and pest condition is a common clause in many residential contracts and allows a purchaser to terminate a contract of sale in the event they are not satisfied with the results of a building and pest report. At the time of signing a contract, a buyer who has limited experience with the construction industry is unlikely going to be aware of any issues potentially impacting on the property, such as the existence of termite damage or structural damage. A building and pest condition provides a safeguard for buyers by allowing experts to come and inspect the property and inform the potential buyer of any building and/or pest issues effecting the property. If the buyer has concerns following receipt of the report, the buyer usually has the right to terminate the contract.

    An insertion of a special condition similar to the one outlined above provides a comparable safeguard to potential buyers, but relevant to drugs. The presence of drugs in a property can have an impact from both a property law and criminal law perspective.

    From a property law perspective, the Residential Tenancies and Rooming Accommodation Act 2003 (Qld) requires landlords to ensure that leased property meets minimum prescribed housing conditions including the obligation to ensure that the property is clean, fit for the tenant to live in, is in good repair and does not impair the health and safety of persons using or entering the property. The presence of drugs can have a long term impact on health and wellbeing, and should a tenant suffer loss as a result of poor health due to the presence of meth contamination, the landlord may find themselves at the wrong end of a claim. The insertion of a special condition allowing a buyer to carry out a drug search can help an investor avoid the undesirable outcome of purchasing a property which is deemed unfit for habitation without considerable expense after settlement is complete.

    From a criminal law perspective, the condition offers an important safeguard for occupiers of a property. Section 129 of the Drugs Misuse Act 1986 (QLD) effectively says that an individual who is an occupier of a property is expected to have knowledge and control of items located in those premises and proof that a dangerous drug was located in a place the person occupied is conclusive evidence of possession – this provision is referred to as “occupier’s liability”. Occupier’s liability extends the usual definition of “possession” and imposes a reverse onus on occupiers of a property. This reverse onus, in practical terms, means that once drugs are located on a property (usually following police executing a search warrant), the occupier is required to demonstrate that they did not know, or ought not to have known, about the presence of the illicit substance or thing located. This is different to the usual onus of proof in criminal law matters, where prosecution bears the relevant onus of proving an individual’s guilt. Occupier’s liability reverses the usual presumption of innocence in criminal law proceedings.

    It is unusual that property law and criminal law proceedings overlap in this way, but Creevey Russell Lawyers encourages individuals looking to invest in residential property to be aware of their rights and to carry out thorough investigations in respect to a proposed purchase for investment purposes as failure to do so can have serious civil and criminal ramifications.

    Should you require advice in respect of any property law matters, please contact Ms Rachel Greenslade on (07) 4617 8777. Should you require advice in respect of any criminal law matters, please contact Mr Trent Jones on (07) 3009 6555.


    Trent Jones
    Senior Associate
    Ph:   07 3009 6555
    Rachel Greenslade
    Ph:   07 4617 8777
  • October 8, 2019 in Commercial Law

    Criminal obstruction charges against ex BlueScope manager

    First time an individual has been charged with inciting the obstruction of a Commonwealth official in relation to an ACCC investigation.

    The Commonwealth Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions has, for the first time, charged an individual with inciting the obstruction of a Commonwealth official in relation to an ACCC investigation, in what is the first of its kind. The charges laid against Mr Ellis (former Manager of BlueScope) by the Commonwealth DPP are offences under the Criminal Code Act 1995 (Cth) that carry a maximum penalty of two years imprisonment per offence. Should the matter proceed to sentence, the sentencing regime attached to Commonwealth offences differs significantly to the regime attached to Queensland based offences. It will be interesting to see how this matter develops over the coming months.

    Our criminal lawyers in Brisbane and Toowoomba are experts in defending criminal charges, whether they be Commonwealth offences or state based offences. In the instance you or those close to you require legal assistance in relation to crime and misconduct matters, do not hesitate to contact our crime and misconduct team leader, Trent Jones, on (07) 3009 6555.

  • October 3, 2019 in Commercial Law

    Who gets the pet?

    We adore our pets and often they are considered to be a part of the family.

    So when a relationship ends, who ‘gets the pet’ can be a very important consideration.

    If you agree about who gets the pet after separating

    In a lot of cases, this issue can be resolved amicably and the parties can agree who will keep the pet, or sometimes parties will agree to ‘share custody’ or arrange regular visits with the pet.

    Due to the time, money and stress that can be involved in going to court, it is best to try to reach an agreement about your pets either through direct negotiation, or through family dispute resolution services (such as a mediation).

    If you can’t agree about who gets the pet

    In some cases for a variety of reasons the parties just can’t reach an agreement about who gets to keep the pet, so they will need to make an application for the Family Law Courts to determine the matter.

    All family law disputes are dealt with under the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) (the ‘Act’).

    As much as people may consider their pets to be a part of the family, the Act does not make any reference to pets or animals. The current legal position is that pets are categorised as ‘chattels’ – which simply means property.

    So, if you need to ask the Family Law Courts to make orders in relation to pets, these orders will be made as part of a property settlement.

    Whilst the Family Law Courts have the power to determine who can keep the pet, the Court does not make orders about ‘sharing custody’ or allowing ‘visitation’ of a pet. Despite being classed as property, pets are also generally not regarded as having a monetary value (unless there is a particular reason, for example for a pedigree dog).

    In deciding who will keep the pet, in previous cases the Family Law Courts have considered things such as:

    • who has possession of the pet
    • who has cared for the pet (such as feeding, walking, washing etc.)
    • who purchased the pet and whether one person had the pet before the relationship started
    • whether the children (when applicable) have a particular attachment to the pet
    • who pays the vet and food bills, and whether the party has capacity to care for the pet and a suitable place for the pet to live.

    The Family Law Courts have a wide discretion under the Act and can take into account any factors they deem fit.

    Can we record our agreement about who would get the pet if we separate?

    Because of the classification of pets as property, one measure which can be taken to prevent any future dispute about ‘who gets the pet’ is to enter in to a binding financial agreement (‘BFA’). The BFA can cover a range of financial matters, or can just deal with the pets – this is completely up to the parties.

    A BFA can be made by parties to a de facto relationship or a marriage either before living together or getting married, at any time during the relationship, or after separation or divorce.

    Should the laws about pets be changed?

    There has also been debate about whether the law surrounding pets should be changed. Some animal rights activists argue that the treatment of animals as property is inappropriate given that pets have awareness and experience complex emotions.

    In some jurisdictions overseas, the courts have adopted a ‘best interest’ test when deciding who gets the pet – meaning that they consider what is in the pet’s best interest. The ‘best interest’ test is the test used in Australia when deciding children’s matters. Despite some push for them to do so, Australian courts have been opposed to changing the treatment of pets under family law.

    If this issue effects you or someone you know please contact Dannielle Glaister in our Family Law Team to discuss on 07 3009 6555.


  • October 3, 2019 in Commercial Law

    Is the written and signed agreement between my ex and I sufficient?

    The answer to this question is that even if an agreement about a property settlement is written down and signed (what is sometimes called an ‘informal agreement’), unless certain steps are followed, the informal agreement will not be binding.

    An agreement can be made binding in two ways:

    1. filing for consent orders in the Family Court; or
    2. signing a binding financial agreement (‘BFA’) which complies with the Family Law Act 1975.

    A consent order is an enforceable Court order that is made after a joint application by the parties, and a BFA is a type of contract, which is made privately without applying to the Court. Each has its own benefits and disadvantages, but both are equally binding.

    Even in simple situations where there aren’t big sums of money involved (or even if there is only debt), it is important that a property settlement agreement is made binding.

    So why is it so important?

    Arguably the biggest benefit of a binding agreement is that it will bring finality to property settlement matters.

    One of the biggest risks with having only an informal agreement is that if either party doesn’t follow it, the other person will have almost no rights to enforce it.

    If the agreement isn’t binding, one party could change their mind or decide they ‘deserved more’. If this happens, the informal agreement cannot be used to stop it and a Court might impose something entirely different, not to mention the time and money you will spend going through the process (which will usually be more than what it would have cost to draw up a binding agreement).

    The matter will also be decided based on the assets and liabilities at that time, as the property pool does not get backdated to the date of separation or the informal agreement. So, for example, if after separation you have saved up or received some money, whilst your ex has built up some credit card debt, then you might be left arguing about what should and shouldn’t be included in the property pool.

    Preparing a binding agreement also gives parties the opportunity to get disclosure from each other so that each party knows what the financial position actually is and exactly what each person is getting out of the settlement.

    Even if you and your ex separated on good terms and you feel confident that neither of you would go back on your agreement, sometimes there can be unintended issues.

    The most common issues are forgetting to or not properly factoring something in (for example, forgetting to factor in capital gains tax or not removing one party’s name from something), or not releasing one party from a liability or personal guarantee (such as a mortgage, finance or credit card).

    For example, say you agree that your ex keeps the car and takes over paying it off, but you aren’t properly released from the finance agreement or personal guarantee. Down the track the bank or finance company might come to you, and even though you don’t have the car anymore you might still be on the hook to pay. A binding agreement prepared by a lawyer would protect you in this kind of situation.

    Formal agreements also have additional benefits including allowing for a superannuation split, certain transfer duty exemptions, and protecting your estate if one of you passes away. Consent orders can also deal with parenting arrangements if the parties also want to include them.

    Seeing a lawyer to formalise your agreement will also give you the benefit of advice on exactly what your agreement means for you and your rights and obligations, and whether the agreement is within the range of what would be considered to be fair.

    To discuss further, contact Dannielle Glaister in our Family Law Team today on 07 3009 6555.

  • October 3, 2019 in Commercial Law

    Considering your contributions in a family law property settlement

    Considering each partners’ contributions to the assets of a marriage or de facto relationship after separating is an important step of the family law property settlement process.

    Contributions can be financial (such as income, or owning a property), non-financial (such as DIY renovations, or looking after the children), direct (made by a partner themselves) or indirect (for example, receiving a gift for the deposit to buy a house).

    Assessing each partners’ contributions will have an effect on the division of the property pool of the relationship and, in general terms, greater contributions can mean a greater entitlement.

    However, the Family Law Courts have repeatedly emphasised that each matter must be decided based on its particular facts and circumstances.

    This means that there is no mathematical formula for making an assessment of contributions to a relationship. It is a common misconception that you will ‘take away what you put in’ during the relationship (in terms of money or assets) – which is not necessarily the case.

    That being said, there are general principles which can be seen in the cases decided by the Family Law Courts which provide guidance as to how contributions will be assessed, and how the property of a relationship will be divided.

    Firstly, the timing of when the contributions are made and the length of the relationship is very relevant.

    Contributions will usually be treated differently when the relationship was short (under about 5 years) or long (over about 10 years). Contributions that are made at the beginning will also usually be treated differently than ones made near the end or after the relationship has ended.

    The nature of the contribution can also be important. Some examples of when contributions will be most important are:

    • when one partner had more assets than the other at the start (for example owning a house or land);
    • when an asset goes significantly up in value (and whether that is because of the effort of the parties or purely because of market forces can be considered);
    • when there have been large gifts or inheritances;
    • when there has been a large lottery or gambling win; or
    • when there is a compensation payout of some kind to one partner (for example personal injuries or total and permanent disability (TPD) payments).

    The Family Law Courts have also emphasised that financial contributions are not necessarily considered to be more important that non-financial contributions, in particular contributions as a homemaker or parent.

    It is also important to remember that the assessment of contributions is only one step in the property settlement process, so even if one partner’s contributions are greater or lesser (or even if they are equal), an adjustment can still be made under the ‘future needs’ or ‘just and equitable’ steps in the process.

    If you are going through a separation it is important to understand your rights and entitlements when you are trying to divide up your assets. In particular, getting specific legal advice about what weight might be attached to your contributions is crucial to make sure you receive your fair share.

    To discuss further, contact Dannielle Glaister in our Family Law Team today on 07 3009 6555.

  • October 1, 2019 in Commercial Law

    End of an Era; No More Paper Certificates of Title from Today (1 October 2019)

    From today, 1 October 2019, paper Certificates of Title will no longer have any legal effect and will not be required to be deposited with the Titles Registry when dealing with property. A paper Certificate of Title will simply now become an item of historic or sentimental value.  Any existing paper Certificate will not need to be destroyed or deposited with the Titles Registry, nor will they need to be dispensed with for a transaction to proceed.

    If you hold a paper certificate of title as security for a debt you might consider registering a mortgage against a debtors property as a new form of security. You should seek further legal advice in relation to protecting your interests.

    If you have any questions or concerns about these changes feel free to contact our Property team on (07) 4617 8777 or (07) 3009 6555.

  • September 13, 2019 in Commercial Law

    Creevey Russell Lawyers Backing Longreach Cup

    Leading Queensland legal firm Creevey Russell Lawyers is proud to be a corporate supporter of the 2019 Longreach Cup, the biggest racing event in outback Queensland.

    Creevey Russell Principal Dan Creevey said the big race day on Saturday, September 29, was an exciting event for the region and a great chance for a community that has endured tough times to enjoy country racing at its finest.

    “Creevey Russell Lawyers is delighted to be involved as a sponsor of the Longreach Cup and we are looking forward to being present on the day and mixing with members of a wonderful community,” Winton-raised Mr Creevey said.

    “We take great pride in the fact that Creevey Russell Lawyers is a rural and regional firm and we are always looking to give back to those communities.

    “It is no secret that many of the state’s regional communities have been doing it tough for many years due to a wide range of economic and environmental factors.”

    Mr Creevey said he maintained close regional ties having grown up in Winton where his father Noel was a local policeman and grandfather Jim Gaffney managed the power station.

    “I go back home regularly and our firm has many clients in the region so it’s great to be able show our support on the big race day,” he said.

    “It’s important to stay closely connected to the people in these communities and listen to their concerns, including about any legal issues they are experiencing which can include problems with vegetation and stock routes, dog baiting, rural transactions and criminal matters.

    “Creevey Russell Lawyers has always had its finger on the pulse of rural Queensland and our agribusiness team members have broad experience in issues of concern to landholders.”

  • September 13, 2019 in Commercial Law

    Mistake of Fact Criticisms Mistaken

    Criticism of a controversial ‘mistake of fact’ law in Queensland is misinformed and there needs to be greater community awareness about how the law operates, says leading legal firm Creevey Russell Lawyers.

    Section 24 of the Criminal Code Act 1899 (Qld) contains the defence that a person is not criminally responsible for an act such as a sex offence if the person held an honest and reasonable, but mistaken, belief there was consent involved.

    The Queensland government has called for the law to be reviewed by the Queensland Law Reform Commission, with a recommendation expected in early 2020.

    Creevey Russell Principal Dan Creevey said the suggestion that the mistake of fact defence allows an offender to walk free in sexual offence type matters is “simply wrong”.

    “Creevey Russell Lawyers believes the criticisms of the section 24 defence are misinformed and there needs to be greater community awareness as to how the law operates,” Mr Creevey said.

    “The mere fact that the defence may be raised does not dictate that a jury will accept the defence is applicable in any given matter. That is because section 24 contains both a subjective and objective component. A  defendant cannot just raise section 24 and expect to be let off – juries apply their common sense, and the subjective component of the test provides that safeguard.”

    Creevey Russell Senior Associate Trent Jones said subjectively, an accused person may hold an honest and mistaken belief regarding the existence of anything, such as the fact a person is consenting to sexual intercourse.

    “Objectively, however, it is a matter – most commonly reserved for juries – to determine whether or not that mistaken belief held by a defendant was reasonable having regard to all the circumstances of a case,” he said.

    “Trials involving sexual offences are most often run before a jury.  The role of a jury in a criminal trial is to determine whether or not an accused person is guilty or not guilty of the alleged offence. A jury reaches their verdict by adopting the role of the sole judge of the fact, receiving guidance and direction regarding the application of the law by the presiding judge.

    “A mere mistake of a defendant is simply not enough to enliven a section 24 defence. For a section 24 defence to be successful, a jury must form the view that the honest, but mistaken, belief held by the defendant, in their particular circumstances, was held on reasonable grounds.

    “The section 24 defence is not a matter whereby an accused person can simply state that they honestly believed a complainant was consenting and automatically expect to be acquitted. If that were the case, there would certainly be significant issues with the justice system, but that is not the way the section 24 defence is designed to operate.

    “Juries have accepted the existence of a mistake of fact defence and acquitted accused people previously, but, similarly, there have been instances where juries have rejected a mistake of fact defence and convicted a defendant.”


    Dan Creevey
    Ph:   07 4617 8777
    Trent Jones
    Senior Associate
    Ph:   07 3009 6555
  • September 13, 2019 in Commercial Law


    Drug related offending has become increasingly prevalent in recent times. In 2017-18 illicit drug offences were the most common offence type totalling 78,167 offenders nationally[1].

    Drug offences have been flooding the Magistrate and District Courts, leading to increased prison populations and a revolving door of recidivism.

    Given this current national drug crisis, the court system has been required to adapt to the new challenges it faces by the overwhelmingly large amount of drug offences being heard each day.

    To address these needs within the community, the government re-implemented the Drug and Alcohol Court in Brisbane in January 2018 to alleviate the high caseload pressure of the Brisbane Magistrates Court.

    The Drug and Alcohol Court is now legislated under the Penalties and Sentences (Drug and Alcohol Treatment Orders) and Other Legislation Amendment Act 2017[2] (the Act) that was passed on October 2017. The Act[3] now enables a Drug and Alcohol Treatment Order to be included under Queensland’s sentencing regime.

    Drug and Alcohol Court was trialled in Queensland in 2013, however was abolished by the Liberal National party to save costs. It was estimated that they saved $35.7 million dollars over a four-year period by scrapping the Queensland Drug and Alcohol Court and Murri Court. Since then both courts have re-established[4].

    Magistrates refer eligible members of the community to the Drug and Alcohol Court where they are subject to Treatment Order requirements. This was implemented after a Drug and Specialist Court Review identified it to be “an evidence-based and cost-effective approach reflecting modern best-practice[5]”,

    As Brisbane’s Drug and Alcohol Court is relatively new, it will take several years to clearly ascertain if there is a long term reduction in reoffending rates and drug offending trends processing through the court system.

    The flow on effects of its implementation however can largely and quickly assist the wider community with crowding issues that our Queensland prisons are facing. Quantitative studies show a consistent trend with the number of people being held in custody on the rise[6]. This leads to less effective outcomes and lower chances of rehabilitation for the prisoners.

    By sentencing eligible individuals to a Drug and Alcohol Court Treatment Order, it means they are not entering the prison system but are given an opportunity to rehabilitate in an evidence-based, intervention program that has been designed to reduce recidivism.

    To be eligible for Drug and Alcohol Court an offender must be an adult, plead guilty to charges at a Magistrates court, live within the Brisbane district and have a substantial substance abuse issue. The drug and alcohol court staff complete a suitability assessment while the matter is adjourned if they are deemed eligible[7]. The treatment order can then begin which assists the individuals with rehabilitation, employment, mental health etc. to ultimately break the cycle of drug-related offending. The drug and alcohol court takes a holistic approach to rehabilitation focusing on several aspects of the person’s life.

    The drug and alcohol epidemic is prevalent nationally, leading to other states enforcing more specific sentencing options to address this issue. Victoria and New South Wales have also included drug and alcohol courts into their sentencing systems.

    The Brisbane Drug and Alcohol Court is run by a team of employees who manage the offenders while on their treatment orders. A number of staff are employed by Queensland Corrective Services who supervise them during this period. The team also includes legal representatives, Prosecutors and Department of Justice and Attorney General court officers. This multi-disciplinary team supports offenders once again taking a holistic approach to more than one aspect of their lives.

    Queensland’s Drug and Alcohol Court is a space to watch with the ever-growing numbers of drug related offending. Long term, this court has the ability to have serious effects on the community and Queensland as a whole given its powers under the Act[8].

    Creevey Russell Lawyers are experts in the area of crime and misconduct. With our dedicated team of experienced lawyers, we provide around the clock legal services for any criminal related matters. We represent clients in all jurisdictions from individuals, to companies and businesses.

    Having an office in Brisbane Central allows our lawyers to access and utilise Brisbane’s Drug and Alcohol Court. Our lawyers have expert knowledge and extensive experience with regards to drug and alcohol related offending. For further information on the services provided by Creevey Russell Lawyers, please visit our website at www.creeveyrussell.com.au.

    For more information regarding Brisbane’s Drug and Alcohol Court, visit https://www.courts.qld.gov.au/courts/drug-court.

    [1] “4519.0 – Recorded Crime – Offenders, 2017-18”, Abs.Gov.Au (Webpage, 2019) <https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/Lookup/by%20Subject/4519.0~2017-18~Main%20Features~Offenders,%20Australia~3>.

    [2] Penalties and Sentences (Drug and Alcohol Treatment Orders) and Other Legislation Amendment Act 2017.

    [3] Ibid.

    [4] Felicity Caldwell, “Four Years After It Was Scrapped, Drug Court Will Return To Queensland”, Brisbane Times (Webpage, 2019) <https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/politics/queensland/four-years-after-it-was-scrapped-drug-court-will-return-to-queensland-20171024-p4ywmk.html>.

    [5] Queensland Drug And Alcohol Court”, Courts.Qld.Gov.Au (Webpage, 2019) <https://www.courts.qld.gov.au/courts/drug-court>.

    [6] Queensland Government, Annual Report 2017-2018 (Queensland Corrective Services, 2018) https://www.publications.qld.gov.au/dataset/e18fd278-6c07-4c63-bb0d-258948ccca71/resource/0397087a-5ea9-4c2e-82a1-625c137d3284/download/qcs-annual-report-2017-181.pdf 13.

    [7] Queensland Drug And Alcohol Court”, Courts.Qld.Gov.Au (Webpage, 2019) <https://www.courts.qld.gov.au/courts/drug-court>.

    [8] Penalties and Sentences (Drug and Alcohol Treatment Orders) and Other Legislation Amendment Act 2017.

    Isabella King
    Ph:   07 4617 8777